Development of PTSD is unpredictable and can occur at any age.
The severity and timing of symptoms differs from person to person.
Cases are categorized by the following classifications:
Acute: symptoms present less than three months.
Chronic: symptoms present three months or longer.
Delayed Onset: no symptoms present for at least six months.
PTSD typically develops immediately after the trauma, however
symptoms may not emerge in some individuals until years afterwards.
Also, trauma may induce either mild symptoms or chronically debilitate.
Recovery from trauma is possible naturally over time, but manifestations
lasting a year or more do not resolve unless treatment is actively pursued.
PTSD sufferers experience an array of symptoms after traumatic episodes.
These persist in avoidance behaviors, requiring treatment for recovery.
Variables surrounding traumatic events influence how PTSD develops.
Elements that could vary the degree and likelihood of PTSD:
uncontrollable, unexpected, or inescapable events;
human-caused, rather than natural, events;
assault, often with a sense of betrayal;
degree of threat, suffering, or fear;
past and present vulnerabilities;
insufficient emotional support;
concurrent causes of stress;
a false sense of responsibility;
genetically or by other potential
combinations of childhood trauma, but most
especially, childhood emotional and physical abuse;
long-term injury and torture of repeated violent acts.
During long-term traumas, a victim is often
held in a state of captivity.
the victim is
under the control
of the perpetrator
and unable to flee.
Requisite one for a
diagnosis of C-PTSD
is extended periods
(months to years) in
second is long-term,
such as abuse beginning
in childhood and continuing
throughout that person's life.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
(PTSD) has been found to be an
undiagnosed and underdiagnosed
illness in the primary care setting.
Patients with histories of child abuse
in addition to physical or sexual trauma
are known to have developed depression,
substance abuse, hypertension, obesity,
diabetes, and somatic disorders.
Gaps in continuity of care
will bring an early death
to those lacking the proper
motivation to live healthier lives.
Primary care treatment is often based
on symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Lack of time prevents primary care providers
from properly assessing and counseling, or providing
referrals for proper health care that will actually help their
patient to recover some semblance of normalcy in their troubled
lives with the aid of therapists, psychiatrists or group therapy meetings
where peers can share struggles with flashbacks or content of distressful dreams,
emotional numbing, avoidance, hyper-arousal, anger, frustration, anxiety, depression,
disassociation. PTSD presents with numerous hard-to-treat symptoms like chronic pain,
avoidance, risky sex behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, plus eating disorders.
Social, family and work issues become added to the recovery as progress allows.
Adults with C-PTSD sometimes experienced prolonged interpersonal
traumatization as children as well as prolonged trauma as adults.
This early injury interrupts the development of a robust sense
of self and of others. Because physical and emotional pain
or neglect was often inflicted by attachment figures such
as caregivers or older siblings, these individuals may
develop a sense they are fundamentally flawed
and that others cannot
of relating to others
in adult life described
as insecure attachment.
The diagnosis of dissociative
disorder and PTSD do not include
insecure attachment as a symptom.
Individuals with Complex PTSD also
demonstrate lasting personality
disturbances with a
significant risk of
Six clusters of
symptoms have been
suggested for diagnosing C-PTSD.
1: alterations in regulation of affect in expressing emotions;
2: alterations in attention diminish executive the functionions;
3: alterations in one's self-perception reveals differences to others,
4: alterations in relating to others including isolation and withdrawal,
5: the psychological distress and anxiety of somatization,
6: fundamental alterations in systems of meaning.
Experiences in these areas may include:
Difficulties regulating emotions, including symptoms
such as persistent dysphoria, chronic suicidal preoccupation,
self injury, explosive or extremely inhibited anger (may alternate),
or compulsive or extremely inhibited sexuality (may alternate).
Variations in consciousness, which can include the forgetting
of traumatic events (psychogenic amnesia), reliving experiences
(either of intrusive PTSD symptoms or in ruminative preoccupation),
or having episodes of dissociation.
Changes in self-perception, such as a
chronic and pervasive sense of helplessness,
paralysis of initiative, shame, guilt, self-blame,
a sense of defilement or stigma, and a sense of being
completely different from other human beings
Varied changes in the perception of the
perpetrator, such as attributing total
power to the perpetrator (caution:
victim's assessment of power
realities may be more
realistic than the
the relationship to the
perpetrator, including a
preoccupation with revenge,
idealization or paradoxical gratitude,
a sense of a special relationship with
the perpetrator or acceptance
of the perpetrator's belief
system or rationalizations.
Alterations in relations with
others, including isolation and
withdrawal, persistent distrust,
a repeated search for a rescuer,
disruption in intimate relationships
and repeated failures of self-protection.
Loss or change in, one's system of meanings,
which may include a loss of sustaining faith
or a sense of hopelessness and despair,
as emotional dysregulation brings forth...